6Ἐκ Μαράθου δὲ ὁρμηθεὶς Βύβλον τε λαμβάνει ὁμολογίᾳ ἐνδοθεῖσαν καὶ Σιδῶνα αὐτῶν Σιδωνίων ἐπικαλεσαμένων κατὰ ἔχθος τὸ Περσῶν καὶ Δαρείου. ἐντεῦθεν δὲ προὐχώρει ὡς ἐπὶ Τύρον· καὶ ἐντυγχάνουσιν αὐτῷ κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν πρέσβεις Τυρίων ἀπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ ἐσταλμένοι ὡς ἐγνωκότων Τυρίων πράσσειν ὅ τι ἂν ἐπαγγέλλῃ Ἀλέξανδρος. 7ὁ δὲ τήν τε πόλιν ἐπαινέσας καὶ τοὺς πρέσβεις (καὶ γὰρ ἦσαν τῶν ἐπιφανῶν ἐν Τύρῳ οἵ τε ἄλλοι καὶ ὁ τοῦ βασιλέως τῶν Τυρίων παῖς. αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἀζέμιλκος μετ᾿ Αὐτοφραδάτου ἔπλει) ἐκέλευσεν ἐπανελθόντας φράσαι Τυρίοις, ὅτι ἐθέλοι παρελθὼν ἐς τὴν πόλιν θῦσαι τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ.

16. Ἔστι γὰρ ἐν Τύρῳ ἱερὸν Ἡρακλέους παλαιότατον ὧν μνήμη ἀνθρωπίνη διασώζεται, οὐ τοῦ Ἀργείου Ἡρακλέους τοῦ Ἀλκμήνης· πολλαῖς γὰρ γενεαῖς πρότερον τιμᾶται ἐν Τύρῳ Ἡρακλῆς ἢ Κάδμον ἐκ Φοινίκης ὁρμηθέντα Θήβας κατασχεῖν καὶ τὴν παῖδα Κάδμῳ τὴν Σεμέλην γενέσθαι, ἐξ ἧς 2καὶ ὁ τοῦ Διὸς Διόνυσος γίγνεται. Διόνυσος μὲν δὴ τρίτος ἂν ἀπὸ Κάδμου εἴη, κατὰ Λάβδακον τὸν Πολυδώρου τοῦ Κάδμου παῖδα, Ἡρακλῆς δὲ ὁ Ἀργεῖος κατ᾿ Οἰδίποδα μάλιστα τὸν Λαΐου. σέβουσι δὲ καὶ Αἰγύπτιοι ἄλλον Ἡρακλέα, οὐχ 3ὅνπερ Τύριοι ἢ Ἕλληνες, ἀλλὰ λέγει Ἡρόδοτος, ὅτι τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν Ἡρακλέα ἄγουσιν Αἰγύπτιοι, καθάπερ καὶ Ἀθηναῖοι Διόνυσον τὸν Διὸς καὶ Κόρης σέβουσιν, ἄλλον τοῦτον Διόνυσον· καὶ ὁ Ἴακχος ὁ μυστικὸς τούτῳ τῷ Διονύσῳ, οὐχὶ τῷ 4Θηβαίῳ, ἐπᾴδεται. ὡς τόν γε ἐν Ταρτησσῷ πρὸς


Anabasis of Alexander II

Alexander marched from Marathus and received6 332 b.c. the surrender of Byblus and Sidon; the Sidonians who loathed Persia and Darius called him in themselves.3 Thence he proceeded towards Tyre, and on the way Tyrian envoys met him, sent by the community to say that Tyre had decided to accept Alexander’s orders. He commended both the city7 and its envoys—for they were Tyrian nobles and included the son of their king, Azemilcus, who was himself at sea with Autophradates’ fleet—and told them to return and inform the Tyrians that he proposed to visit Tyre and sacrifice to Heracles.4

16. At Tyre there is the most ancient temple of Heracles of which there is any human recollection, not the Argive Heracles, son of Alcmene, for a Heracles was honoured at Tyre many generations before Cadmus sailed from Phoenicia, occupied Thebes, and had a daughter Semele, mother of Dionysus son of Zeus. For Dionysus would appear to be in2 the third generation from Cadmus, along with Labdacus son of Polydorus, son of Cadmus; while the Argive Heracles was probably a contemporary of Oedipus son of Laius. The Egyptians too worship another Heracles, different from the Heracles of Tyre and the Heracles of Greece; Herodotus1 says3 that the Egyptians reckon him one of the Twelve Deities, just as the Athenians worship a different Dionysus, son of Zeus and Kore. It is to him, not the Theban Dionysus, that the mystic chant ‘Iacchus’ is sung.2 I think that the Heracles honoured by the4

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.arrian-anabasis_alexander.1976