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Aristotle

ΠΕΡΙ ΑΡΕΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΚΙΩΝ

1249 a

26I. Ἐπαινετὰ μέν ἐστιν τὰ καλά, ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ 1 αἰσχρά·καὶ τῶν μὲν καλῶν ἡγοῦνται αἱ ἀρεταί, τῶν δὲ αἰσχρῶν αἱ κακίαι· ὥστε ἐπαινεταὶ μὲν αἱ2 ἀρεταί,1 ἐπαινετὰ δέ ἐστι καὶ τὰ αἴτια τῶν ἀρετῶν καὶ τὰ παρεπόμενα ταῖς ἀρεταῖς καὶ τὰ γινόμενα ἀπ᾿ 30αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν,2 ψεκτὰ δὲ τὰ ἐναντία.

Τριμεροῦς δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς λαμβανομένης κατὰ3 1249 bΠλάτωνα, τοῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ ἀρετή ἐστιν ἡ 27φρόνησις, τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε πραότης καὶ ἡ ἀνδρεία, τοῦ δὲ ἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε σωφροσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐγκράτεια, ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἥ τε δικαιοσύνη καὶ ἡ ἐλευθεριότης καὶ ἡ μεγαλοψυχία· κακία δέ4 30ἐστιν τοῦ μὲν λογιστικοῦ ἡ ἀφροσύνη, τοῦ δὲ θυμοειδοῦς ἥ τε ὀργιλότης καὶ ἡ δειλία, τοῦ δὲ 1250 aἐπιθυμητικοῦ ἥ τε ἀκολασία καὶ ἡ ἀκρασία, ὅλης δὲ τῆς ψυχῆς ἡ τε ἀδικία καὶ ἡ ἀνελευθερία καὶ ἡ μικροψυχία.

II. Ἔστιν δὲ φρόνησις μὲν ἀρετὴ τοῦ λογιστικοῦ1 παρασκευαστικὴ τῶν πρὸς εὐδαιμονίαν συντεινόντων. 5πραότης δέ ἐστιν ἀρετὴ τοῦ θυμοειδοῦς καθ᾿2 ἣν πρὸς ὀργὰς γίνονται δυσκίνητοι. ἀνδρεία δέ3

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On Virtues and Vices

On Virtues and Vices

1 I. Fine things are the objects of praise, base things Moral values of blame; and at the head of the fine stand the 2 virtues, at the head of the base the vices; consequently the virtues are objects of praise, and also the causes of the virtues are objects of praise, and the things that accompany the virtues and that result from them, and their works, while the opposite are the objects of blame.

3 If in accordance with Plato the spirit is taken as Psychology of ethics having three parts, wisdom is goodness of the rational part, gentleness and courage of the passionate, of the appetitive sobriety of mind and self-control, and of the spirit as a whole righteousness, liberality and 4 great-spiritedness; while badness of the rational part is folly, of the passionate ill-temper and cowardice, of the appetitive profligacy and uncontrol, and of the spirit as a whole unrighteousness, meanness and smallmindedness.

1 II. Wisdom is goodness of the rational part that is applied to the Virtues productive of the things contributing to happiness. 2 Gentleness is goodness of the passionate part that 3 makes people difficult to move to anger. Courage is

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-virtues_vices.1935