Aristotle, Categories

LCL 325: 14-15

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Aristotle

1 a προσηγορίαν ἔχει, οἷον ἀπὸ τῆς γραμματικῆς ὁ 15γραμματικὸς καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνδρείας ὁ ἀνδρεῖος.

II. Τῶν λεγομένων τὰ μὲν κατὰ συμπλοκὴν λέγεται, τὰ δ᾿ ἄνευ συμπλοκῆς. τὰ μὲν οὖν κατὰ συμπλοκὴν οἷον ἄνθρωπος τρέχει, ἄνθρωπος νικᾷ· τὰ δ᾿ ἄνευ συμπλοκῆς οἷον ἄνθρωπος, βοῦς, τρέχει, νικᾷ.

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Τῶν ὄντων τὰ μὲν καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου τινὸς λέγεται, ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ δὲ οὐδενί ἐστιν, οἷον ἄνθρωπος καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου μὲν λέγεται τοῦ τινὸς ἀνθρώπου, ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ δὲ οὐδενί ἐστι· τὰ δὲ ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ μέν ἐστι, καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου δὲ οὐδενὸς λέγεται (ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ δὲ λέγω, ὃ ἔν τινι 25μὴ ὡς μέρος ὑπάρχον ἀδύνατον χωρὶς εἶναι τοῦ ἐν ᾧ ἐστίν), οἷον ἡ τὶς γραμματικὴ ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ μέν ἐστι τῇ ψυχῇ, καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου δ᾿ οὐδενὸς λέγεται, καὶ τὸ τὶ λευκὸν ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ μὲν τῷ σώματί ἐστιν (ἅπαν γὰρ χρῶμα ἐν σώματι), καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου δὲ οὐδενὸς λέγεται· τὰ δὲ καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου 1bτε λέγεται καὶ ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ ἐστίν, οἷον ἡ ἐπιστήμη ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ μέν ἐστι τῇ ψυχῇ, καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου δὲ λέγεται τῆς γραμματικῆς· τὰ δὲ οὔτ᾿ ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ ἐστὶν οὔτε καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου τινὸς λέγεται, οἷον ὁ τὶς ἄνθρωπος καὶ ὁ τὶς ἵππος· 5οὐδὲν γὰρ τῶν τοιούτων οὔτε ἐν ὑποκειμένῳ ἐστὶν οὔτε καθ᾿ ὑποκειμένου λέγεται. ἁπλῶς δὲ τὰ ἄτομα

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Categories, II

form, as, for instance, ‘grammarian’ from ‘grammar,’ from ‘heroism,’ hero,’ and so on.a

II. We may or we may not combine what we call words, expressions and phrases. Combine them; you have propositions—for instance, ‘man runs’ or ‘man wins’—while examples of uncombined forms are ‘man,’ ‘ox,’ runs ‘and ‘wins’ and the like.

But as for the things that are meant, when we thus speak of uncombined words, you can predicate some of a subject, but they never are present in one. You can predicate ‘man,’ for example, of this or that man as the subject, but man is not found in a subject. By ‘in,’ ‘present,’ ‘found in a subject’ I do not mean present or found as its parts are contained in a whole; I mean that it cannot exist as apart from the subject referred to. And then there is that class of things which are present or found in a subject, although they cannot be asserted of any known subject whatever. A piece of grammatical knowledge is there in the mind as a subject but cannot be predicated of any known subject whatever. Again, a particular whiteness is present or found in a body (all colour implies some such basis as what we intend by ‘a body’) but cannot itself be asserted of any known subject whatever. We find there are some things, moreover, not only affirmed of a subject but present also in a subject. Thus knowledge, for instance, while present in this or that mind as a subject, is also asserted of grammar. There is, finally, that class of things which can neither be found in a subject nor yet be asserted of one—this or that man or horse, for example. For nothing of that kind is in or is ever affirmed of a subject. More generally speaking, indeed, we can never affirm of a subject what is in its

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-the_categories.1938