ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΟΥΣ ΠΕΡΙ ΣΟΦΙΣΤΙΚΩΝ ΕΛΕΓΧΩΝ
164 a 20I. Περὶ δὲ τῶν σοφιστικῶν ἐλέγχων καὶ τῶν φαινομένων μὲν ἐλέγχων ὄντων δὲ παραλογισμῶν ἀλλ᾿ οὐκ ἐλέγχων λέγωμεν, ἀρξάμενοι κατὰ φύσιν ἀπὸ τῶν πρώτων.
Ὅτι μὲν οὖν οἱ μὲν εἰσὶ συλλογισμοί, οἱ δ᾿ οὐκ ὄντες δοκοῦσι, φανερόν. ὥσπερ γὰρ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν 25ἄλλων τοῦτο γίνεται διά τινος ὁμοιότητος, καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν λόγων ὡσαύτως ἔχει. καὶ γὰρ τὴν ἕξιν οἱ μὲν ἔχουσιν εὖ, οἱ δὲ φαίνονται, φυλετικῶς 164 b 20φυσήσαντες καὶ ἐπισκευάσαντες αὑτούς, καὶ καλοὶ οἱ μὲν διὰ κάλλος, οἱ δὲ φαίνονται, κομμώσαντες αὑτούς. ἐπί τε τῶν ἀψύχων ὡσαύτως· καὶ γὰρ τούτων τὰ μὲν ἄργυρος τὰ δὲ χρυσός ἐστιν ἀληθῶς, τὰ δ᾿ ἔστι μὲν οὔ, φαίνεται δὲ κατὰ τὴν αἴσθησιν, οἷον τὰ μὲν λιθαργύρινα καὶ τὰ καττιτέρινα ἀργυρᾶ, 25τὰ δὲ χολοβάφινα χρυσᾶ. τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ τρόπον καὶ συλλογισμὸς καὶ ἔλεγχος ὁ μὲν ἔστιν, ὁ δ᾿ οὐκ
Aristotle on Sophistical Refutations
I. Let us now treat of sophistical refutations, that is, arguments which appear to be refutations but are really fallacies and not refutations, beginning, as is natural, with those which come first.
That some reasonings are really reasonings, butINTRODUCTION (chs. i–ii). The distinction between reasonings and refutations which are genuine and those which are only apparent, i.e. sophistical. that others seem to be, but are not really, reasonings, is obvious. For, as this happens in other spheres from a similarity between the true and the false, so it happens also in arguments. For some people possess good physical condition, while others have merely the appearance of it, by blowing themselves out and dressing themselves up like the tribal chorusesa; again, some people are beautiful because . of their beauty, while others have the appearance of beauty because they trick themselves out. So too with inanimate things; for some of these are really silver and some gold, while others are not but only appear to our senses to be so; for example, objects made of lithargeb or tin appear to be silver, and yellow-coloured objects appear to be gold. In the same way also reasoning and refutation are sometimes real and sometimes not, but appear to be real