436 aI. Ἐπεὶ δὲ περὶ ψυχῆς καθ᾿ αὑτὴν διώρισται καὶ περὶ τῶν δυνάμεων ἑκάστης κατὰ μόριον αὐτῆς, ἐχόμενόν ἐστι ποιήσασθαι τὴν ἐπίσκεψιν περὶ τῶν ζῴων καὶ τῶν ζωὴν ἐχόντων ἁπάντων, 5τίνες εἰσὶν ἴδιαι καὶ τίνες κοιναὶ πράξεις αὐτῶν. τὰ μὲν οὖν εἰρημένα περὶ ψυχῆς ὑποκείσθω, περὶ δὲ τῶν λοιπῶν λέγωμεν, καὶ πρῶτον περὶ τῶν πρώτων. φαίνεται δὲ τὰ μέγιστα, καὶ τὰ κοινὰ καὶ τὰ ἴδια τῶν ζῴων, κοινὰ τῆς ψυχῆς ὄντα καὶ τοῦ σώματος, οἷον αἴσθησις καὶ μνήμη καὶ θυμὸς 10καὶ ἐπιθυμία καὶ ὅλως ὄρεξις, καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἡδονή τε καὶ λύπη· καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα σχεδὸν ὑπάρχει πᾶσι τοῖς ζῴοις. πρὸς δὲ τούτοις τὰ μὲν πάντων ἐστὶ τῶν μετεχόντων ζωῆς κοινά, τὰ δὲ τῶν ζῴων ἐνίοις. τυγχάνουσι δὲ τούτων τὰ μέγιστα τέτταρες οὖσαι συζυγίαι τὸν ἀριθμόν, οἷον 15ἐγρήγορσις καὶ ὕπνος, καὶ νεότης καὶ γῆρας, καὶ ἀναπνοὴ καὶ ἐκπνοή, καὶ ζωὴ καὶ θάνατος· περὶ ὧν θεωρητέον, τί τε ἕκαστον αὐτῶν, καὶ διὰ τίνας αἰτίας συμβαίνει.

Φυσικοῦ δὲ καὶ περὶ ὑγιείας καὶ νόσου τὰς πρώτας ἰδεῖν ἀρχάς· οὔτε γὰρ ὑγίειαν οὔτε νόσον


On Sense and Sensible Objects

On Sense and Sensible Objects

I. Since we have now dealt in detail with the soul Our subject is the activities of the living animal. by itself, and with each of its several faculties, our next task is to consider animals and all things possessed of life, and to discover what are their peculiar and what are their common activities. All that has already been said about the soul is to be assumed, but let us now discuss the remaining questions, dealing first of all with those which naturally come first. The most important characteristics of animals, whether common or peculiar, are clearly those which belong to both soul and body, such as sensation, memory, passion, desire, and appetite generally, and in addition to these pleasure and pain; for these belong to almost all living creatures. Besides these there are some which are common to all things that have a share in life, and others which are peculiar to certain animals. The most important of these are the four pairs, namely waking and sleep, youth and age, inhalation and exhalation, life and death; we have now to investigate what each of these is, and what are the reasons for their occurrence.

It is further the duty of the natural philosopherDisease and health. to study the first principles of disease and health; for neither health nor disease can be properties of

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-parva_naturalia_sense_sensible_objects.1957