ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΟΥΣ ΗΘΙΚΩΝ ΝΙΚΟΜΑΧΕΙΩΝ Α
iΠᾶσα τέχνη καὶ πᾶσα μέθοδος, ὁμοίως δὲ πρᾶξίς1094 a τε καὶ προαίρεσις, ἀγαθοῦ τινὸς ἐφίεσθαι δοκεῖ· διὸ καλῶς ἀπεφήναντο τἀγαθὸν οὗ πάντ᾿ ἐφίεται. 2(διαφορὰ δέ τις φαίνεται τῶν τελῶν· τὰ μὲν γάρ εἰσιν ἐνέργειαι, τὰ δὲ παρ᾿ αὐτὰς ἔργα τινά· ὧν δ᾿5 εἰσὶ τέλη τινὰ παρὰ τὰς πράξεις, ἐν τούτοις βελτίω 3πέφυκε τῶν ἐνεργειῶν τὰ ἔργα.) πολλῶν δὲ πράξεων οὐσῶν καὶ τεχνῶν καὶ ἐπιστημῶν πολλὰ γίνεται καὶ τὰ τέλη· ἰατρικῆς μὲν γὰρ ὑγίεια, ναυπηγικῆς δὲ πλοῖον, στρατηγικῆς δὲ νίκη, 4οἰκονομικῆς δὲ πλοῦτος. ὅσαι δ᾿ εἰσὶ τῶν τοιούτων10 ὑπὸ μίαν τινὰ δύναμιν—καθάπερ ὑπὸ τὴν ἱππικὴν ἡ χαλινοποιικὴ καὶ ὅσαι ἄλλαι τῶν ἱππικῶν ὀργάνων εἰσίν, αὕτη δὲ καὶ πᾶσα πολεμικὴ πρᾶξις ὑπὸ τὴν στρατηγικήν, τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ1 τρόπον
Nicomachean Ethics, I.
Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics
iEvery art and every investigation, and likewiseBook I Happiness. cc. i–iii. Introduction: the nature of the subject. c. i. Every Practical Science has an End. every practical pursuit or undertaking, seems to aim at some good: hence it has been well said that the 2Good is That at which all things aim. (It is true that a certain variety is to be observed among the ends the at which the arts and sciences aim: in some cases the activity of practising the art is itself the end,a whereas in others the end is some product over and above the mere exercise of the art; and in the arts whose ends are certain things beside the practice of the arts themselves, these products are essentially superior 3in value to the activities.) But as there are numerous pursuits and arts and sciences, it follows that their ends are correspondingly numerous: for instance, the end of the science of medicine is health, that of the art of shipbuilding a vessel, that of strategy 4victory, that of domestic economy wealth. Now in cases where several such pursuits are subordinate to some single faculty—as bridle-making and the other trades concerned with horses’ harness are subordinate to horsemanship, and this and every other military pursuit to the science of strategy, and