Aristotle, Metaphysics

LCL 271: 400-401

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1042 a 3I. Ἐκ δὴ τῶν εἰρημένων συλλογίσασθαι δεῖ, καὶ συναγαγόντας τὸ κεφάλαιον τέλος ἐπιθεῖναι. εἴρη- ται 5 δὴ ὅτι τῶν οὐσιῶν ζητεῖται τὰ αἴτια καὶ αἱ ἀρχαὶ καὶ τὰ στοιχεῖα. οὐσίαι δὲ αἱ μὲν ὁμολογού- μεναί εἰσιν ὑπὸ πάντων, περὶ δὲ ἐνίων ἰδίᾳ τινὲς ἀπεφήναντο. ὁμολογούμεναι μὲν αἱ φυσικαί, οἷον πῦρ γῆ ὕδωρ ἀὴρ καὶ τἆλλα τὰ ἁπλᾶ σώματα, 10 ἔπειτα τὰ φυτὰ καὶ τὰ μόρια αὐτῶν, καὶ τὰ ζῷα καὶ τὰ μόρια τῶν ζῴων, καὶ τέλος ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ τὰ μόρια τοῦ οὐρανοῦ· ἰδίᾳ δέ τινες οὐσίας λέγουσιν εἶναι τά τ᾿ εἴδη καὶ τὰ μαθηματικά. ἄλλας δὲ δὴ συμβαίνει ἐκ τῶν λόγων οὐσίας εἶναι, τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι καὶ τὸ ὑποκείμενον. ἔτι ἄλλως τὸ γένος 15 μᾶλλον τῶν εἰδῶν καὶ τὸ καθόλου τῶν καθ᾿ ἕκαστα. τῷ δὲ καθόλου καὶ τῷ γένει καὶ αἱ ἰδέαι συν- άπτουσιν· κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν γὰρ λόγον οὐσίαι δοκοῦσιν εἶναι. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι οὐσία, τούτου δὲ λόγος ὁ ὁρισμός, διὰ τοῦτο περὶ ὁρισμοῦ καὶ περὶ τοῦ καθ᾿ αὑτὸ διώρισται. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ ὁρισμὸς λόγος, 20 ὁ δὲ λόγος μέρη ἔχει, ἀναγκαῖον καὶ περὶ μέρους


Metaphysics, VIII. i


I. We must now draw our conclusions from what has Book VIII. Matter and Form. been said, and after summing up the result, bring our inquiry to a close. We have saida that the Summary of the preceding Book. objects of our inquiry are the causes and principles and elements of substances. Now some substances are agreed upon by all; but about others certain thinkers have stated individual theories. Those2 about which there is agreement are natural substances: e.g. fire, earth, water, air and all the other simple bodies; next, plants and their parts, and animals and the parts of animals; and finally the sensible universe and its parts; and certain thinkers individually include as substances the Forms and the objects of mathematics.b And arguments show3 that there are yet other substances: the essence and the substrate.c Again, from another point of view, the genus is more nearly substance than the species, and the universal than the particularsd; and there is a close connexion between the universal and genus and the Ideas, for they are thought to be substance on the same grounds.e And since the essence4 is substance, and definition is the formula of the essence, we have therefore systematically examined definition and essential predication.f And since the definition is a formula, and the formula has parts, we have been compelled to investigate “parts,”

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-metaphysics.1933