Aristotle, Metaphysics

LCL 271: 208-209

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Aristotle

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1012 b

I. Ἀρχὴ λέγεται ἡ μὲν ὅθεν ἄν τις τοῦ πράγ- 35 ματος κινηθείη πρῶτον, οἷον τοῦ μήκους καὶ 1013 aὁδοῦ ἐντεῦθεν μὲν αὕτη ἀρχή, ἐξ ἐναντίας δ᾿ ἑτέρα· ἡ δὲ ὅθεν ἂν κάλλιστα ἕκαστον γένοιτο,1 οἷον καὶ μαθήσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου καὶ τῆς τοῦ πράγματος ἀρχῆς ἐνίοτε ἀρκτέον, ἀλλ᾿ ὅθεν ῥᾷστ᾿ ἂν μάθοι· ἡ δὲ ὅθεν πρῶτον γίγνεται ἐνυπάρχοντος, 5 οἷον ὡς πλοίου τρόπις καὶ οἰκίας θεμέλιος, καὶ τῶν ζῴων οἱ μὲν καρδίαν οἱ δὲ ἐγκέφαλον οἱ δ᾿ ὅ τι ἂν τύχωσι τοιοῦτον ὑπο- λαμβάνουσιν· ἡ δὲ ὅθεν γίγνεται πρῶτον μὴ ἐνυπάρχοντος, καὶ ὅθεν πρῶτον ἡ κίνησις πέφυκεν ἄρχεσθαι καὶ ἡ μεταβολή, οἷον τὸ τέκνον ἐκ τοῦ 10 πατρὸς καὶ τῆς μητρὸς καὶ ἡ μάχη ἐκ τῆς λοιδο- ρίας· ἡ δὲ οὗ κατὰ προαίρεσιν κινεῖται τὰ κινού- μενα καὶ μεταβάλλει τὰ μεταβάλλοντα, ὥσπερ αἵ τε κατὰ πόλεις ἀρχαὶ καὶ αἱ δυναστεῖαι καὶ αἱ βασιλεῖαι καὶ τυραννίδες. ἀρχαὶ <δὲ>2 λέγονται καὶ αἱ τέχναι, καὶ τούτων αἱ ἀρχιτεκτονικαὶ 15 μάλιστα. ἔτι ὅθεν γνωστὸν τὸ πρᾶγμα πρῶτον,

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Metaphysics, V. i

Book V

I. “Beginning”a means: (a) That part of a thing Book v. Definitions of various Terms. from which one may first move; e.g., a line or a journey has one beginning here, and another at the opposite extremity. (b) The point from which each “Beginning.” thing may best come into being; e.g., a course of study should sometimes be begun not from what is primary or from the starting-point of the subject, but from the point from which it is easiest to learn, (c) That thing as a result of whose presence something first comes into being; e.g., as the keel is the beginning of a ship, and the foundation that of a house, and as in the case of animals some thinkers suppose the heartb to be the “beginning,” others the brain,c and others something similar, whatever it may be. (d) That from which, although not present in it, a thing first comes into being, and that from which motion and change naturally first begin, as the child comes from the father and mother, and fighting from abuse, (e) That in accordance with whose deliberate choice that which is moved is moved, and that which is changed is changed; such as magistracies, authorities, monarchies and despotisms. (f) Arts are also called “beginnings,”d especially the2 architectonic arts, (g) Again, “beginning” means

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.aristotle-metaphysics.1933