1. Τὴν Ῥωμαϊκὴν ἱστορίαν ἀρχόμενος συγγράφειν ἀναγκαῖον ἡγησάμην προτάξαι τοὺς ὅρους, ὅσων ἐθνῶν ἄρχουσι Ῥωμαῖοι. εἰσὶ δὲ οἵδε· 2ἐν μὲν τῷ ὠκεανῷ Βρεττανῶν τοῦ πλείονος μέρους, διὰ δὲ τῶν Ἡρακλείων στηλῶν ἐς τήνδε τὴν θάλασσαν ἐσπλέοντί τε καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς αὐτὰς στήλας περιπλέοντι νήσων ἄρχουσι πασῶν καὶ ἠπείρων, ὅσαι καθήκουσιν ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν. 3ὧν εἰσιν ἐν δεξιᾷ πρῶτοι Μαυρουσίων, ὅσοι περὶ τὴν θάλασσαν, ὅσα τε ἄλλα Λιβύων ἔθνη μέχρι Καρχηδόνος καὶ τούτων ὕπερθε Νομάδες, οὓς Ῥωμαῖοι καλοῦσι Νουμίδας καὶ τὴν χώραν Νουμιδίαν, ἕτεροι δὲ Λίβυες, ὅσοι περιοικοῦσι τὰς Σύρτεις μέχρι Κυρήνης, Κυρήνη τε αὐτὴ καὶ Μαρμαρίδαι καὶ
1. As I begin the process of writing up my Roman history, I thought I should first set out the boundaries of all the nations under Roman rule. They are as follows. 2In the Ocean, most of Britain;2 in this sea, for someone entering through the Pillars of Heracles and taking in its entire circuit all the way round back to the Pillars of Heracles, Rome controls all the islands and all the coastal lands. 3First, on the right, are the Mauretanians of the coast, and the various other African peoples as far as Carthage.3 Inland from them are the Nomads (the Romans call them Numidians and their country Numidia). Then come other Africans who live around the Syrtes4 as far as Cyrene; after them Cyrene itself, and the Marmaridae and Ammonians
- 1The oldest manuscript of Appian, V (Vat. Gr. 141), gives the title as “Appian’s Italian History. The Preface.” Other manuscripts and the fifteenth-century translation of Candidus have: “The Roman (or Italian) History of Appian of Alexandria, scholar. Preface.”
- 2Appian refers to the Atlantic as “the Ocean.” The Mediterranean he calls “this sea” or “the inner sea.”
- 3Appian’s circumnavigation takes the reader from the straits of Gibraltar (the Pillars of Heracles) along the southern shore of the Mediterranean first, then round the eastern end and across the north coast, back to Gibraltar. “Libya” is the Greek word for Africa: to avoid confusion with the modern state of Libya, I render it as “Africa.”
- 4The Gulf of Libya.