Appian, Roman History. Civil Wars

LCL 5: 4-5

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διετίθεντο ἀπὸ τοῦδε, καὶ ἡ βουλὴ καὶ ὁ δῆμος ἐς αὐτὰς ἐμερίζετο ὡς ἐν ταῖς τῶνδε πλεονεξίαις ἑκάτεροι τῶν ἑτέρων ἐπικρατοῦντες. Μάρκιός τε ὁ Κοριολανὸς ἐν ταῖσδε ταῖς ἔρισιν ἐξελαθεὶς παρὰ δίκην ἐς Οὐολούσκους ἔφυγέ τε καὶ πόλεμον ἐπήγαγε τῇ πατρίδι.

2. 4Καὶ τοῦτο μόνον ἄν τις εὕροι τῶν πάλαι στάσεων ἔργον ἔνοπλον, καὶ τοῦθ᾿ ὑπ᾿ αὐτομόλου γενόμενον, ξίφος δὲ οὐδέν πω παρενεχθὲν ἐς ἐκκλησίαν οὐδὲ φόνον ἔμφυλον, πρίν γε Τιβέριος Σεμπρώνιος Γράκχος δημαρχῶν καὶ νόμους ἐσφέρων πρῶτος ὅδε ἐν στάσει ἀπώλετο καὶ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ πολλοὶ κατὰ τὸ Καπιτώλιον εἱλούμενοι περὶ τὸν νεὼν ἀνῃρέθησαν. 5καὶ οὐκ ἀνέσχον ἔτι αἱ στάσεις ἐπὶ τῷδε τῷ μύσει, διαιρουμένων ἑκάστοτε σαφῶς ἐπ᾿ ἀλλήλοις καὶ ἐγχειρίδια πολλάκις φερόντων κτιννυμένης τέ τινος ἀρχῆς ἐκ διαστήματος ἐν ἱεροῖς ἢ ἐκκλησίαις ἢ ἀγοραῖς, δημάρχων ἢ στρατηγῶν ἢ ὑπάτων ἢ τῶν ἐς ταῦτα παραγγελλόντων ἢ τῶν ἄλλως ἐπιφανῶν. ὕβρις τε ἄκοσμος ἐπεῖχεν αἰεὶ δι᾿ ὀλίγου καὶ νόμων καὶ δίκης αἰσχρὰ καταφρόνησις. 6προιόντος δ᾿ ἐς μέγα τοῦ κακοῦ, ἐπαναστάσεις ἐπὶ τὴν πολιτείαν φανεραὶ καὶ στρατεῖαι μεγάλαι καὶ βίαιοι κατὰ τῆς πατρίδος ἐγίγνοντο φυγάδων ἀνδρῶν ἢ καταδίκων ἢ περὶ ἀρχῆς τινος ἢ



between the magistrates from now on; and it was the reason why the senate and plebeians took sides with them, each believing that it would prevail over the other by increasing the power of its own magistrates. It was in the course of these disputes that Marcius Coriolanus, unjustly driven out of Rome, took refuge with the Volsci and waged war against his own country.3

2. 4This is the only case you will find among these ancient political disputes in which armed violence took place—and it was caused by a deserter. No sword was ever carried into an assembly, and there was no civil bloodshed before the time of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, who, while serving as tribune and proposing legislation, was the first to die in the course of a political conflict. And many were killed besides him on the Capitol, herded together around the temple. 5Political strife did not end with this abominable deed, because on each occasion the parties divided against each other openly, and with the carrying of daggers becoming a frequent occurrence, from time to time a magistrate—a tribune, for instance, or praetor, consul, candidate for office, or otherwise prominent person—would be assassinated in a temple, voting assembly, or forum. Little by little chaotic violence grew steadily, together with a shameful contempt for the laws and justice. 6As the affliction worsened terribly, episodes of open revolt against the state and of large-scale, military violence against the nation occurred, led by exiles, criminals, or

DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.appian-roman_history_civil_wars.2020