1. Ῥωμαίοις ὁ δῆμος καὶ ἡ βουλὴ πολλάκις ἐς ἀλλήλους περί τε νόμων θέσεως καὶ χρεῶν ἀποκοπῆς ἢ γῆς διαδατουμένης ἢ ἐν ἀρχαιρεσίαις ἐστασίασαν· οὐ μήν τι χειρῶν ἔργον ἔμφυλον ἦν, ἀλλὰ διαφοραὶ μόναι καὶ ἔριδες ἔννομοι, καὶ τάδε μετὰ πολλῆς αἰδοῦς εἴκοντες ἀλλήλοις διετίθεντο. 2ὁ δὲ δῆμός ποτε καὶ στρατευόμενος ἐς τοιάνδε ἔριν ἐμπεσὼν οὐκ ἐχρήσατο τοῖς ὅπλοις παροῦσιν, ἀλλ᾿ ἐς τὸ ὄρος ἐκδραμών, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε κλῃζόμενον, ἱερόν, οὐδὲν οὐδὲ τότε χειρῶν ἔργον ἀλλ᾿ ἀρχὴν ἑαυτοῦ προστάτιν ἀπέφηνε καὶ ἐκάλεσε δημαρχίαν ἐς κώλυσιν μάλιστα τῶν ὑπάτων ἀπὸ τῆς βουλῆς αἱρουμένων μὴ ἐντελὲς αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ τῇ πολιτείᾳ τὸ κράτος εἶναι. 3ὅθεν δὴ καὶ μάλιστα δυσμενέστερον ἔτι καὶ φιλονικότερον ἐς ἀλλήλας αἱ ἀρχαὶ
BOOK XIIICIVIL WARS, BOOK I1
1. At Rome the senate and plebeians often came into conflict with each other over the enactment of laws and the cancellation of debts, or the distribution of lands, or during the election of magistrates. There were, however, no acts of civic violence, only disagreements and lawful disputes, which they settled, with great respect for each other, by making mutual concessions. 2On one occasion, the plebeians fell into just such a dispute, and even though they were armed for military service, they did not use the weapons at their disposal, but withdrew to what was thereafter called the Sacred Mount. Even then no violence resulted, but they created a magistracy for their own protection and called it the Tribunate of the Plebs. It was to serve especially as a check upon the consuls, who were chosen from the senate,2 so that political power should not reside exclusively in their hands. 3Indeed it was this in particular that gave rise to still greater bitterness and competition
- 1The manuscripts mostly give the title as “Appian’s Roman History 14, Civil Wars 1.” For Photius, the first book of the Civil Wars is the thirteenth of the Roman History. See Introduction, vol. 1 (LCL 2), p. xvii.
- 2It appears Appian thought that plebeians could not be senators in the early Republic. The evidence of plebeian consular names suggests otherwise.