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Appian’s Roman History, Book VIII

cap. i2. Χρόνῳ δ᾿, ἐντεῦθεν ὁρμώμενοι καὶ τῶν περιοίκων ἀμείνους ὄντες ἐς χεῖρας ἐλθεῖν, ναυσί τε χρώμενοι καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν οἷα Φοίνικες ἐργαζόμενοι, τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἔξω τῇ Βύρσῃ περιέθηκαν. καὶ δυναστεύοντες ἤδη Λιβύης ἐκράτουν καὶ πολλῆς θαλάσσης, ἐκδήμους τε πολέμους ἐστράτευον ἐς Σικελίαν καὶ Σαρδὼ καὶ νήσους ἄλλας ὅσαι τῆσδε τῆς θαλάσσης εἰσί, καὶ ἐς Ἰβηρίαν. πολλαχῇ δὲ καὶ ἀποικίας ἐξέπεμπον. ἥ τε ἀρχὴ αὐτοῖς ἐγένετο δυνάμει μὲν ἀξιόμαχος τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ, περιουσίᾳ δὲ μετὰ τὴν Περσικήν. ἑπτακοσίοις δ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἔτεσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ συνοικισμοῦ Ῥωμαῖοι Σικελίαν ἀφείλοντο, καὶ Σαρδὼ μετὰ Σικελίαν, δευτέρῳ δὲ πολέμῳ καὶ Ἰβηρίαν. ἔς τε τὴν ἀλλήλων ἐμβαλόντες μεγάλοις στρατοῖς, οἱ μὲν Ἀννίβου σφῶν ἡγουμένου τὴν Ἰταλίαν ἐπόρθουν ἑκκαίδεκα ἔτεσιν ἑξῆς, οἱ δὲ Λιβύην Κορνηλίου Σκιπίωνος τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου σφῶν στρατηγοῦντος, μέχρι τὴν ἡγεμονίαν Καρχηδονίους ἀφείλοντο καὶ ναῦς καὶ ἐλέφαντας, καὶ χρήματα σφίσιν ἐπέταξαν ἐσενεγκεῖν ἐν χρόνῳ. δεύτεραί τε σπονδαὶ Ῥωμαίοις καὶ Καρχηδονίοις αἵδε διέμειναν ἐς ἔτη πεντήκοντα, μέχρι λύσαντες αὐτὰς τρίτον πόλεμον καὶ τελευταῖον ἀλλήλοις ἐπολέμησαν, ἐν ᾧ Καρχηδόνα Ῥωμαῖοι κατέσκαψαν Σκιπίωνος τοῦ νεωτέρου σφῶν στρατηγοῦντος, καὶ ἐπάρατον ἔγνωσαν. αὖθις δ᾿ ᾤκισαν ἰδίοις ἀνδράσιν, ἀγχοτάτω μάλιστα τῆς προτέρας, ὡς εὔκαιρον ἐπὶ Λιβύῃ χωρίον. τούτων τὰ μὲν ἀμφὶ Σικελίαν ἡ Σικελικὴ γραφὴ δηλοῖ, τὰ δ᾿ ἐν Ἰβηρίᾳ γενόμενα ἡ Ἰβηρική, καὶ ὅσα Ἀννίβας ἐς Ἰταλίαν

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The Punic Wars

2. Later on, using this as a base and getting thechap. i upper hand of their neighbours in war, and engaging in traffic by sea, like all Phoenicians, they built the outer city round Byrsa. Gradually acquiring strength they mastered Africa and a great part of the Mediterranean, carried war abroad into Sicily and Sardinia and the other islands of that sea, and also into Spain, while they sent out numerous colonies. TheyPunic wars became a match for the Greeks in power, and next to the Persians in wealth. But about 700 years after the foundation of the city the Romans took Sicily and Sardinia away from them, and in a second war Spain also. Then, each invading the other’s territory with immense armies, the Carthaginians, under Hannibal, ravaged Italy for sixteen years in succession, while the Romans, under the leadership of Cornelius Scipio the elder, carried the war into Africa until they deprived the Carthaginians of their hegemony, their navy and their elephants, and required them to pay an indemnity within a certain time. This second treaty between the Romans and the Carthaginians lasted fifty years, until, upon an infraction of it, the third and last war broke out between them, in which the Romans under Scipio the younger razed Carthage to the ground and decreed that it should be accursed. But they subsequently occupied a spot very near the former one with colonists of their own, because the position is a convenient one for governing Africa. Of these matters the Sicilian part is shown in my Sicilian history, the Spanish in the Spanish history, and what

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DOI: 10.4159/DLCL.appian-roman_history_book_viii_1_punic_wars.1912