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GENERAL INTRODUCTION

antiquity and other literary activity (if any). Further, brief introductions to the individual speeches provide the necessary context for these if it is not obvious from the source texts. Notes on the individual texts confine themselves to points of detail.

For cross-references to other orators and speeches, the names of orators, their numbers (in bold), and the numbers of the texts (“T or F + number”) are used.

A number of orators appear frequently in a variety of contexts, and they are identified by their full name and number each time they are mentioned in the sources, to indicate the multiple connections between orators of each period. These cross-references should be followed up for more information about the individuals, since details of their careers or the cases they were involved in are not typically repeated outside their own entries. This is especially the case if several orators spoke on the same political or forensic issues: more detailed background information tends to be given in connection with the first orator involved (occasionally the most prominent), which can be found via these cross-references. If the same testimoniumgives information about several orators, it is typically printed only once, with cross-references given in the other places where it is relevant. For cases in which Cicero was involved, details are not always provided, as they can easily be found in biographies of Cicero or introductions to editions of the orations he delivered on those occasions.

Doubtful attribution of passages to a particular orator or a specific speech is discussed in the relevant introductions and notes.

In the Latin text, {} indicates deletions, <> marks additions (by modern scholars), ⌊ ⌋ denotes supplements

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GENERAL INTRODUCTION

from a secondary tradition, and [] encloses explanations. Words to be deleted are rarely translated; if so, they are also enclosed in {} in the English version. Meaningful additions to the Latin (beyond individual letters to create a grammatical text) have also been marked in the English by <> (apart from very corrupt texts discussed in notes). Substantial additions to the English version for the sake of clarity have been enclosed in [], and square [] brackets are again used for explanations.

The dating of Cicero’s letters follows that given in D.R. Shackleton Bailey’s editions (including those in the Loeb Classical Library).

Note on translations

Most of the material in these volumes consists of “testimonia” or similar texts; thus translation for the most part is straightforward, in the sense that one mainly has to deal with complete texts rather than with true fragments that may not even consist of a complete clause. However, because some entries comprise longer texts from different periods, by different authors, in different languages (Latin and Greek), and in different genres, they represent a wide range of writing styles. Hence, the translations try to reproduce the nature of each text as far as is feasible. Overall, they aim at providing a reliable guide to the Latin or the Greek text, thus staying close to the original while offering readable English.

Since so few “fragments” (in the narrow sense) survive for Roman Republican oratory, it is almost impossible in most cases to get a sense of the style of individual orators and imitate that in the English translation. For a few individuals,

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