it was deemed that the numbering of the source texts was sufficient to identify particular oratorical occasions and to enable cross-references, while the numbering of orations might convey a false sense of completeness in terms of theoverall number of speeches known for each orator and of their sequence. Potential dates for speeches for which there is sufficient evidence are discussed in the introductions to each orator or speech. As Malcovati’s numbering has been kept, her order of speeches is followed (according to the chronology established by her, with speeches ofunknown date at the end, followed by unplaced fragments).

Editorial practice

The texts for the “fragments” and “testimonia” have not been taken from Malcovati’s edition, but rather from the most recent and/or most reliable editions of the source authors (listed in the Bibliography), giving precise indications of the locations of the passages printed.15 For all pieces of evidence, as much of the context is given as is necessary for a full understanding and evaluation of the information on an orator or an oration. The textual apparatus has not been reproduced in full; it includes only brief notes on major issues affecting the sense and/or the attribution. Because of the wide range of source authors, no specific sigla have been used to identify individual manuscripts;



instead, they are referred to as “cod.” or “codd.,” as appropriate.

For source authors who are represented elsewhere in the Loeb Classical Library, those existing English translations have provided starting points (with thanks to their respective translators), though they have all been updated and adapted for the purposes of this edition. The texts from source authors not (yet) included in the LCL have been newly translated.

This edition, like that of Malcovati, gives at the beginning of each entry general testimonia on the life or the assessment of a person’s oratory. In contrast to testimonia on individual speeches (subsumed under “fragments”: “F + number”), these are marked as Testimonia by “T + number.” This distinction is made clearer here than in Malcovati, who numbered all passages illustrating a given orator sequentially, just printing the testimonia in smaller font. The adoption of Malcovati’s numbering, however, means that the sequences of “fragments” do not always begin with F 1, but rather with various numbers, depending on the amount of testimonia.

The section on each orator starts with a brief introduction, including references both to the general testimonia printed and to other pieces of evidence. These introductions identify each orator by their RE number, the highest political offices they reached (if any) and other prosopographical data where relevant, and, where details are known, provide brief summaries of their biographies, focusing on key events characterizing the respective men and/or relevant to their oratory. These introductions also survey the general assessment of each person’s oratory in