This glossary explains a selection of the most significant Greek and Latin terms that appear in the present edition. It is neither a complete index verborum, nor a thematic index, nor an exhaustive systematic index like the one that W. Kranz prepared for Diels-Kranz, which readers can consult in Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, volume 3, pp. 5–488. Instead, we have limited ourselves here to clarifying those terms that, for one reason or another, seem to us to require a special explanation: terms that we have been led to translate in different ways in different passages, and for which the translation is often followed by a transcription (e.g. logos); terms that Greek differentiates but that are usually rendered by the same word in the translation (e.g. adêlos/aphanês); terms that are not necessarily transcribed but that either are particularly important philosophically (e.g. nomos, phusis), or recur often (e.g. agathos), or are connected to particular aspects of Greek civilization, like religion (e.g. eusebeia). Terms not found in this list include the words transcribed in our edition only so as to indicate assonances and alliterations (especially in the chapter on Gorgias), the quasi-synonymous words that Prodicus endeavors to distinguish from one another, and certain words for which the transcription has only a local interest, in particular rare, dialectal, technical, or idiosyncratic terms. As a general rule, the terms presented here belong to the vocabulary of the original fragments; but several terms belonging to the later philosophical tradition and to doxography (e.g. homoiomereia) have been added when this seemed useful.

Each term or family of terms is presented first in a transcription, followed by the Greek original and our translations, then usually by a brief explanation (into which sometimes the translations have been integrated); the references are intended to guide the reader to some of the most significant occurrences but do not aim at exhaustiveness.