Seneca, Natural Questions, Volume II

LCL 457: 310-311

Go To Section
Go To Section
Tools
  • spiritus, see air
  • stars: 1.1.6, 1.1.9–14, 1.14.1–4, 1.55.3, 7.1.7, 7.20.3; see planets
  • study of nature: divisions of, 2.1.1–5; beauty of, 1.Pr.1–2, 1.Pr.4–17; greatness of, 3.Pr.1–4; cp. 18; its slow advance, 7.25.1–5, 7.30.2–6, 7.31.1; we should respect ancient theories, 6.5.2–3; neglected by the contemporaries of Seneca, 7.31.1–7, 7.32.4; the benefits it confers, 2.59.2, 3.Pr.18, 4.13.2–3; gives relief from unnecessary fear, 6.4.2, 6.32.1; see also nature.
  • subsolanus, a wind, 5.16.4
  • sun: 1.3.5 ff., 1.12.1 ff, 1.17.2; rainbow as a reflection of, 1.3.5–1.8.8; eclipse of, 1.12.1–2, 7.20.4; “suns”, 1.11.2–1.13.3; its rays a possible source of lightning, 2.12.3; drawing moisture (Diogenes of Apollonia), 4.2.28; a cause of wind, 5.6.1, 5.8.2–5.10.4
  • surmullet, 3.17.2–3.18.6
  • thrascias, a wind, 5.16.6
  • thunder: 2.12.1 ff., 2.17.1, 2.18.1, 2.20.1–3, 2.27.1, 2.28.3, 2.30.1–4, 2.54.3, 2.55.3; see also lightning
  • torches (meteors), 1.1.5, 1.1.12, 7.4.3, 7.5.1–2, 7.21.1, 7.23.2–3
  • tremor (of the earth), 6.21.2, 6.31.1–2; see earthquakes
  • trumpets (meteors), 7.21.1
  • unexpected, the fear it causes, 7.3.2–4, 7.1.1, 7.1.5
  • universe: 1.3.1 ff.; its infinite variety, 7.24.2–3, 7.27.2–4; its rotation, 1.3.10, 7.2.3; its periodic destruction, 3.27.1 ff.; Jupiter, 2.45.3
  • veins, in the earth, 3.15.1–8, 6.14.1–2
  • virgae, 1.9.1–2, 1.10.1
  • virtue, a setting free of the mind, 1.Pr.6
  • vision, errors of, 1.3.9–10, 1.6.5
  • vows, 2.35.1–2, 2.38.4
  • vulturnus, a wind, 5.16.4
  • war, condemned, 5.18.5–12
  • water: an element in endless supply, 3.12.1–4, 3.13.2, 3.14.3, 3.30.3–4; in heaven, on earth, under the earth, 3.23.1; varieties of on earth, 3.2.1–2, 3.3.1; source of on earth, 3.4.1, 3.10.5; as old as the start of the world, 3.22.1; under the earth, 3.8.1, 3.16.4–5, 3.19.4, 5.14.2, 6.7.1–6, 6.8.1–2; its taste, 3.20.1–6; hot water, 3.24.1–4; medicinal water, 3.25.11; poisonous, 3.20.5–6, 3.21.1–2, 3.25.1–2; for bleaching, 3.25.3–4; full of matter, 3.20.1–4, 3.25.5–10; natural purifying of, 3.26.5–8; questions raised by rivers etc., 3.1.1–2; water a cause of earthquakes (Thales and others), 6.6.1–6.7.6, 6.20.2–4, 6.20.6; buoyancy of, 3.25.5–7; containing life-principle, 5.5.2; cp. 6.6.1, 6.6.3 ff.
  • whirlwinds, see wind
  • wind: definition of, 5.1.1–4; its causes, 5.2.1, 5.6.1; regular winds, 5.7.1–5.11.2; whirlwinds, 5.13.1–3, 7.5.1.2, 7.6.3, 7.8.1–4, 7.9.2–7.10.3; winds derived from other winds, 5.13.4; underground winds, 5.14.1–3; principal winds, 5.16.1–2; local winds, 5.17.5; Etesian winds, 5.10.2–4, 5.11.1–2; the benefits they achieve, 5.18.1–4, 5.18.13 ff.; not a cause of comets, 7.7.1; man’s misuse of, 5.18.5 ff., 5.18.11; wind-rose, 5.16.3–6, 5.17.1–2 and folder
  • wine, congealed by lightning, 2.53.1
  • world, see universe
  • “zones”, 5.17.4; see folder
310
Note on Winds

Scientific writers in Graeco-Roman times preferred exact divisions of the sky and an exact direction-source for each wind; but natural lack of precision in most people caused some wind-names to be applied vaguely each to more than one wind, and direction-names to be applied with like vagueness; just as one says, as if it were always true, that “the sun rises in the east (oriens, ἀνατολή) and sets in the west” (occasus, occidens, δύσις ἡλίου), whereas the sun does these things twice only during every year. So we have:—Ἀρκτος the “Bear”, Septemtrio(nes) the “Seven-Star Team”, is the northern direction. But Βορέας, Aquilo (“dusky, watery”?), a northerly direction and wind, came to be applied more exactly to the NNE wind, Ἀπαρκτίας being the true-north wind. The Greek Μέσης (“middle wind”) was presumably the NE wind, though the name Καικίας (derived maybe from the river Κάϊκος), properly the ENE wind, was sometimes given to the NE or even to the NNE wind. Any eastern direction was called in general by the Greeks Εὖρος (“parching” from εὕω? or “dawn-region” from ἕως? or “breezy” from αὔρα?), Eurus. From it blew the east wind (Ἀπηλιώτης or Ἀφηλιώτης “from the sun”, Subsolanus “under the sun”; sometimes called Εὖρος, Eurus). But later, the wind Εὖρος, Eurus, or Volturnus or Vulturnus (wind of what is now Monte Vulture in Apulia) was specially the ESE, though sometimes it was the

311