- Vahlen: Iohannes Vahlen, Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae, 2nd ed., Leipzig. 1903.
- Volkmann: Richard Volkmann, Die Rhetorik der Griechen und Römer, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1885.
- Walz: Christianus Walz, Rhetores Graeci, Stuttgart, Tübingen, London, and Paris, 1832–6. 9 vols.
- Warmington: E. H. Warmington, Remains of Old Latin, Cambridge, Mass., and London, 935–8. 4 vols., Loeb Classical Library.
- G. M. A. Grube, The Greek and Roman Critics, Toronto, 1965.
- G. A. Kennedy, The Art of Rhetoric in the Roman World, 300 b.c.–a.d. 300, Princeton, 1972.
(1) In a short Preface the author dedicates the treatise to Herennius, disclaims the intention of treating material irrelevant to the art of rhetoric, and stresses the need to apply in practice the rules he will set forth. (2) The task of the public speaker is to discuss capably those matters which law and custom have fixed for the uses of citizenship, and to secure as far as possible the agreement of his hearers. The kinds of causes are three: (a) Epideictic, (b) Deliberative, and (c) Judicial. (3) The speaker should be competent in (a) Invention, (b) Arrangement, (c) Style, (d) Memory, and (e) Delivery, and the means of acquiring these kinds of competence are three: (a) Theory, (b) Imitation, and (c) Practice. (4) In showing how to adapt the discourse to the theory of the speaker’s function, the author gives primary consideration to Invention as used in each of the parts of a discourse in a Judicial cause: (a) Introduction, (6) Statement of Facts, (c) Division, (d) Proof, (e) Refutation, and (f) Conclusion. Each part of the discourse is defined before receiving special treatment in detail.
(5) To make an appropriate Introduction we must consider whether the cause is (a) honourable, (6) discreditable, (c) of doubtful creditableness, or (d) petty. (6) The nature of the cause thus viewed from a moral standpoint determines whether the Introduction shall take the form of (a) a Direct Opening, or