Tools

proved very useful. I will also note Prof. E. R. Goodenough’s Jewish Jurisprudence in Egypt, and if I seem to mention it to express disagreement more often than agreement, this does not detract from what I owe to his fresh and illuminating way of treating the many problems which these treatises suggest.

F. H. C.

Cambridge, January 1937.

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General Introduction

The last volume carried us through the introductory part of the Exposition of the Laws, namely that in which Philo set before his readers the picture of Moses and his predecessors as living embodiments of the laws. In this volume we pass on to the laws themselves. Inevitably he begins with the Ten Commandments, which being given directly by God himself are to be regarded as the general heads under which the specific enactments given through Moses are to be grouped. While he practically accepts our division of the Ten into duty towards God and duty towards our neighbour, he does not divide them into four and six, but, led perhaps by his love of numerical symmetry, into two sets of five, the place of the Fifth in the first group being justified by the close analogy of parenthood to the creative work of God.

The first of the four treatises in this volume, the De Decalogo, apart from some preliminary considerations about the theophany on Sinai and a short sketch at the end of the system to be followed in the subsequent treatises, deals with the Ten in their literal meaning. He now passes on to the Special Laws. In all four books the treatment of each commandment begins with a dissertation on the commandment itself in its literal sense, similar to, though fuller than, that in the De Decalogo, and then proceeds to a discussion of the

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