Aristotle, Art of Rhetoric

LCL 193: viii-ix

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Apart from the necessary changes in the Greek text and the corresponding changes in translation, I also tried to take into account the scholarly literature that had been published since the 1920s. This concerns especially the technical terminology, where words that might have seemed to be merely stylistic variants had been shown to be relevant. So for instance the words εἰκός (likely or probable) and ἔνδοξον (plausible) were indiscriminately translated as “probable”; the word πίστεις (in most cases translated as “means of persuasion”’) was throughout translated as “proofs,” which now sounds odd when applied to such things as emotions; in fact, only in Book 3 is it used in the loose sense of “proof” to cover everything that an orator would put forward to support a proposal or judgment.

Finally, Roberts evidently had a talent for English versification, always translating Aristotle’s quotations from drama or poetry into English verse. Freese did not try, but then his translations sometimes sound so much more awkward than the surrounding prose that I have often tried to give them at least some rhythm.

In places where I had to adapt the translation to correspond to Kassel’s text, I have consulted the English translations of Roberts (revised) and Kennedy, but also the French of M. Dufour in the Budé edition and the German of C. Rapp. In the very few places where I decided to diverge from Kassel’s text, I have indicated that in a footnote.

In closing, I would like to thank the editors of the Loeb Classical Library, and in particular Jeffrey Henderson and



Michael B. Sullivan, for entrusting the revision of this volume to me, for their help in editing it, and for their patience with a very slow worker.


December 2019