One would hardly add a poor account of a matter to a treatise which already contained a good one; it is therefore improbable that Joints contained Chapter LXXX when it got separated from Fractures, and had its more glaring omissions made up by insertions from Mochlicon. We thus get back to the author of Mochlicon. Did he abbreviate his Chapter XIX (XXIX J.) from LXXX? Able editors such as Littré, Adams, Petrequin say he did. I venture to think that the reader will find no evidence of this, but will discover without much trouble that XXIX is practically made up of stock phrases taken from the three previous chapters, one of them (“the flesh wastes chiefly on the side opposite to the dislocation”) being dragged in rather absurdly. Unusual words, εὔσημον ἀντωθεῖν ἔκπτωμα ἐπιπωροῦται, are all absent from LXXX, but have been just used or seen by the epitomist (ἐπιπωροῦται F. XXXVIII which he has just abridged), while the peculiar words and expressions of LXXX are all absent.

Coming to the Diocles quotation we find a great contrast. The correspondence of words and phrases is so close, that, though the hand is looked at from a different position, it seems almost certain that the two passages are connected. The natural view is that Diocles is copying Hippocrates, and this seems confirmed by Galen’s assertion that he paraphrased other parts of Joints. On the other side there is the ignorance of Apollonius; the difficulty in believing that Chapter LXXX could have been so entirely lost and so entirely recovered after many centuries, and another fact which perhaps turns the balance against the accepted theory. Besides σαύρα the writer uses another word in a peculiar sense, χώρα = “joint socket.” This occurs no less than six times in the two chapters LXXIX–LXXX, which is strong evidence that they are by the same author, and against the view that he is identical with the author of Fractures-Joints; for though the old writer uses χώρα1 occasionally, it always has its natural sense of “place,” whereas in LXXIX–LXXX the “natural” and sometimes necessary sense is “socket.” The remaining Chapter (LXXXI) is made up largely of passages taken from the two previous


ones, with the highly un-Hippocratic addition that all dislocation patients should be starved for seven days(!). Even if we soften this down by inserting καὶ (“even for seven days”) as do some manuscripts, it is still inconsistent with the rules given by the author of Fractures-Joints. We conclude therefore that these three chapters are probably a late addition. Perhaps a surgeon who had read the apology and supplement of Apollonius, and believed, as we do, that the latter is really taken from Hippocrates, thought it no forgery to try to rewrite the latter in an expanded form and in Hippocratic style. While he was about it, he might also wish to remedy another defect in Joints, which, as he justly observes, should first tell us what joints are. He therefore composed Chapters LXXIX–LXXX and probably LXXXI which became firmly attached to the end of the treatise.

The Diocles Supplement to XXIX

Δακτύλου μὲν ἄρθρον ἄν τε ποδὸς ἄν τε χειρὸς ἐκπέσῃ, τετραχῶς ἐκπίπτει, ἢ ἐντὸς ἢ ἐκτὸς ἢ εἰς τὰ πλάγια. ὅπως δ᾿ ἂν ἐκπέσῃ, ῥᾴδιον γνῶναι πρὸς τὸ ὁμώνυμον καὶ τὸ ὑγιὲς θεωροῦντα. ἐμβάλλειν δὲ κατατείνοντα εὐθὺ ἀπὸ χειρῶν, περιελίξαι δὲ ὅπως μὴ ἐξολισθάνῃ. ἀστεῖον δὲ καὶ τὰς σαύρας, ἃς οἱ παῖδες πλέκουσι, περιθέντα περὶ ἄκρον τὸν δάκτυλον κατατείνειν, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ἐπὶ θάτερα ταῖς χερσίν.

A joint either of a toe or finger may be put out. It is put out in four ways, inwards, outwards, or to the sides. The way it is put out is easy to distinguish by comparing it with the sound and corresponding joint. Put it in by making extension in a straight line with the hands, but wrap a band round it that it may not slip away. It is also ingenious to put the lizards, which children plait, round the end of the finger and make extension, pulling in the opposite direction with the hands.

The Hippocratic Bench

Though we have three complete accounts of the Hippocratic Bench, by “Hippocrates,”1 Rufus (or Heliodorus),2