variations of spelling. Where the textual notes go beyond bare citation of the readings of the MSS., Ald., Gaza, and Pliny, it is usually because I have there departed from Wimmer’s text. The references to Pliny will, I hope, be found fairly complete. I am indebted for most of them to Schneider, but I have verified these and all other references.

I venture to hope that this translation, with its references and Index of Plants, may assist some competent scholar-botanist to produce an edition worthy of the author.

Besides those already mentioned I have to thank also my friends Professor D’Arcy Thompson, C.B., Litt.D. of Dundee, Mr. A. W. Hill of Kew, Mr. E. A. Bowles for help of various kinds, and the Rev. F. W. Galpin for his learned exposition of a passage which otherwise would have been dark indeed to me—the description of the manufacture of the reed mouthpieces of wood-wind instruments in Book IV. Sir John Sandys, Public Orator of Cambridge University, was good enough to give me valuable help in matters of bibliography.

Introduction I.—Bibliography and Abbreviations used A. Textual Authorities

Wimmer divides the authorities on which the text of the περὶ φυτῶν ἱστορία is based into three classes:—

  • First Class:
    • U. Codex Urbinas: in the Vatican. Collated by Bekker and Amati; far the best extant MS., but evidently founded on a much corrupted copy. See note on 9. 8. 1.
    • P2. Codex Parisiensis: at Paris. Contains considerable excerpts; evidently founded on a good MS.; considered by Wimmer second only in authority to U. (Of other collections of excerpts may be mentioned one at Munich, called after Pletho.)
  • Second Class:
    • M (M1, M2). Codices Medicei: at Florence. Agree so closely that they may be regarded as a single MS.; considered by Wimmer much inferior to U, but of higher authority than Ald.