Plutarch, Lives, Volume II

LCL 47: 622-623

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A Partial Dictionary of Proper Names

  • Acestodorus, possibly the Acestodorus of Megalopolis, of unknown date, author of a work “On Cities.”
  • Achaia, a province in the north of Peloponnesus, seat of the Achaean League (280–146 b.c.). In 167 b.c., the Romans deported 1000 Achaeans to Italy, where they were held for seventeen years. Among them was the historian Polybius. The name Achaia was afterwards given to the whole of southern Greece as a Roman province.
  • Acharnae, the largest deme, or township, of Attica, some eight miles to the north of Athens.
  • Adiabené, the western province of Assyria, lying along the Tigris river.
  • Aeolian Isles, a group of islands lying between Sicily and Italy (Lucania).
  • Aeschines the Socratic, a disciple of Socrates, and author of Socratic dialogues.
  • Agesilaüs, king of Sparta 398–361 b.c.
  • Albania, a country lying between Armenia, the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus mountains, to the east of Iberia.
  • Allia, an insignificant stream, joining the Tiber about eleven miles above Rome, from the east.
  • Amisus, a city of Pontus (or Paphlagonia), on the southern shore of the Euxine Sea, some one hundred miles east of Sinopé.
  • Ammon, a Libyan divinity, identified with Zeus and Jupiter. His most famous oracle was in an oasis of the Libyan desert.
  • Amphiaraüs, a mythical seer and prophet, king of Argos, who perished in the expedition of the Seven against Thebes.
  • Anaxagoras, of Clazomenae, in Ionian Asia Minor, influential at Athens as an advanced thinker from about 460 to 432 b.c., when the enemies of Pericles secured his banishment.
  • Andocides, an Athenian orator, prominent 415–390 b.c. He betrayed the oligarchical party, incurring its hatred, and vainly tried to win the favour of the democratic party.
  • Andros, the most northerly island of the Cyclades group, S.E. of Euboea.
  • Anio, a large river of Latium, rising in the Apennines, and joining the Tiber about three miles above Rome, from the east.
  • Antiochus the Great, king of Syria 223–187 b.c.
  • Antiochus the philosopher, of Ascalon, pupil of Philo in the school of the Academy, a friend of Lucullus, and a teacher of Cicero. He died in 68 b.c.
  • Antipater, regent of Macedonia after the death of Alexander (322 b.c.), victor over the confederate Greeks at Crannon, in Thessaly, 322. He died in 319.
  • Araxes, a large river rising in Armenia, and flowing east into the Caspian Sea.
  • Arbela, an Assyrian town near which (at the village of Gaugamela) Darius suffered final defeat at the hands of Alexander, in 331 b.c.
  • Archelaüs, of Miletus, the natural philosopher, said to have been a pupil of Anaxagoras, and a teacher of Socrates.
  • Archidamus, king of Sparta from 361 to 338 b.c., when he went to the aid of the Tarentines in Italy, and was killed in battle.
  • Archon Eponymous, the first of the board of nine archons at Athens, so called, after the Roman conquest, because the year was registered in his name.
  • Aristogeiton, slayer, with Harmodius, of Hipparchus, the brother of the Athenian tyrant Hippias, in 514 b.c. The two “tyrannicides” were afterwards honoured as patriots and martyrs.
  • Ariston of Ceos, head of the Peripatetic school of philosophy at Athens about 225 b.c. (pp. 9, 217).
  • Ariston the philosopher (p. 355), of Chios, a Stoic, pupil of Zeno. In his later life he taught doctrines of the Cynic school. He flourished about 260 b.c., and is often confounded with Ariston of Ceos.
  • Aristoxenus the musician, a pupil of Aristotle, and a philosopher of the Peripatetic school.
  • Armenia, a country lying north of Mesopotamia and Assyria, between the upper Euphrates and Media.
  • Artaxata, the ancient capital of Armenia, on the river Araxes. See Tigranocerta.
  • Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus, vassal of Xerxes, who distinguished herself in the battle of Salamis.
  • Asopis, a mythical personage, mother of Mentor by Heracles.
  • Atilius, M. Atilius Regulus, consul for the second time in 256 b.c., when he was defeated and taken prisoner by the Carthaginians.
  • Atropatené, a province of Media, to the east of Armenia.
  • Attalus, the name of three kings of Pergamum, in Asia Minor.
  • Bithynia, a country of N.W. Asia Minor, lying east of the Propontis, and along the coast of the Euxine Sea.
  • Boëdromion, the third month in the Attic calendar, corresponding nearly to our September.
  • Brundisium, an important city on the eastern coast of Italy (Calabria), with a fine harbour. It was the natural point of departure from Italy to the East, and was the chief naval station of the Romans in the Adriatic Sea.
  • Cabeira (or Cabira), a city of Pontus, in the northern part of Asia Minor.
  • Caepio, Q. Servilius, consul in 106 b.c., receiving the province of Gallia Narbonensis, where, in the following year, on the 6th of October, his army was utterly annihilated by the Cimbri.
  • Callisthenes, of Olynthus, a relative and pupil of Aristotle, author of a Hellenica, or History of Greece, from 387 to 357 b.c. He accompanied Alexander the Great as historian of the expedition, the end of which he did not live to see.
  • Cappadocia, a district in eastern Asia Minor, south of Pontus, and north of Cilicia.
  • Carneades, of Cyrené, head of the Academy at Athens in 156 b.c. (when he was one of an embassy of philosophers to Rome) and until his death in 129 b.c. He was famous for the persuasive force of his eloquence.