Tools

uncharitable joke. Even less serious is the invective against garlic (and indirectly Maecenas) in no. 3. The beautiful idyll in no. 2 turns out to be satirical, but the satire is very gentle; and the target of the remarks in 11 and 14 is the poet himself. No. 13, perhaps the finest piece in the collection, contains no aggression at all, and would easily pass for an ode. However, before drawing too sharp a distinction between Horace and his Greek “models,“ it is well to remember that Archilochus did not confine himself to bitter lampoons, any more than Lucilius confined himself to mordant satire. Like Horace’s other collections, the Epodes present an interesting variety of subject and mood.

Metres

(The nomenclature adopted below follows that of Bennett.)

The Odes

1. Asclepiad-based systems

Asclepiad – – – ⏑ ⏑ – / – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏓ (Maecenas atavis edite regibus)

Greater Asclepiad – – – ⏑ ⏑ – / – ⏑ ⏑ – / – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏓ (nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem)

Glyconic – – – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏓ (cui flavam religas comam)

Pherecratean – – – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏓ (grato, Pyrrha, sub antro)

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(a) First Asclepiad (I.1; III.30; IV.8). A series of Asclepiad lines.

(b) Second Asclepiad (I.3,13,19,36; III.9,15,19,24,25,28; IV.1,3). A quatrain of alternating Glyconics and Asclepiads.

(c) Third Asclepiad (I.6,15,24,33; II.12; III.10,16; IV.5,12). Three Asclepiads followed by a Glyconic.

(d) Fourth Asclepiad (I.5,14,21,23; III.7,13; IV.13). Two Asclepiads followed by a Pherecratean and a Glyconic.

(e) Fifth Asclepiad (I.11, 18; IV.10). A series of greater Asclepiads.

2. The Alcaic stanza (I.9,16,17,26,27,29,31,34,35,37; II.1,3,5,7,9,11,13,14,15,17,19,20; III.1–6,17,21,23,26,29; IV.4,9,14,15)

⏓ – ⃑ – – / – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏓

⏓ – ⃑ – – / – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏓

⏓ – ⃑ – – – ⃑ ⏓

– ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏓

3(a) The Sapphic stanza (I.2,10,12,20,22,25,30,32,38; II.2,4,6,8,10,16; III.8,11,14,18,20,22,27; IV.2,6,11; Carmen Saeculare

– ⏑ – – – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ – ⏓

– ⏑ – – – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ – ⏓

– ⏑ – – – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ – ⏓

– ⏑ ⏑ – ⏓

3(b) The greater Sapphic (I.8). An Aristophaneus followed by a greater Sapphic line:

– ⏑ ⏑ – ⏑ – –

– ⏑ – – – ⏑ ⏑ – / – ⏑ ⏑ – ⏓ – –

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