References are to Book and Section; all dates, given in parentheses (. . .), are b.o.
- Academicians, 1. adherents of the New Academy (q.v.); their right to teach ethics, i, 6; attitude toward knowledge, ii, 7; Cicero’s philosophy, ii, 1-8. 2. adherents of the Old Academy, iii, 20.
- Academy, 1. the Older, a school of philosophy founded by Plato and so called from its home; their doctrine of ideas, iii, 76, 81; the pre-existence and immortality of the soul; monotheism; the goodness of God; striving after His perfection. 2. the New, a modification of the Old, sceptical, anti-dogmatic, eclectic, iii, 20.
- Accius, Lucius, a tragic poet (born 170). His tragedies were mostly imitations from the Greek. Cicero knew him personally; quotes from him, iii, 84, 102, 106.
- Acilius; Gaius Acilius Glabrio (tribune, 197); interpreter, when Carneades, Diogenes, and Critolaus came to Rome; author of History of Rome, iii, 115.
- Admiration, how won with dignity, ii, 31 fg.
- Aeacidae, descendants of Aeacus (q.v.), the father of Peleus and Telamon and grandfather of Achilles and Ajax, i, 38.
- Aeacus, son of Zeus (Jupiter) and king of Aegina (q.v.); renowned for his justice and piety, i, 97; after his death he became with Minos and Rhadamanthus judge in Hades.
- Aedileship, cost of, ii, 57-60.
- Aegina, an island in the Saronic Gulf, a dangerous rival to Athens, directly in front of Piraeus and only twelve miles away, iii, 46; unjustly appropriated by Athens (429), iii, 46.
- Aeginetans, the people of Aegina (q.v.).
- Aelius; see Tubero.
- Aemilius; see Paulus and Scaurus.
- Aequians, a warlike mountain tribe on the upper Anio, warring against Rome (till 304), i, 35.
- Aesopus, Claudius, an intimate friend of Cicero, Rome’s greatest tragic actor, i, 114.
- Africa, the province in which Carthage was, i, 112 (Thapsus); iii, 99 (Carthage).
- Africanus; see Scipio.
- Agamemnon, leader of the war against Troy; when detained at Aulis he sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia to save the expedition, iii, 95. For this he was slain on his return from Troy by his wife Clytaemnestra.
- Agesilaus, king of Sparta (398-360); waged war in Asia (396-394), victor at Coronea, saviour of Sparta after Mantinea (362); ii, 16.
- Agis IV, king of Sparta (244-240); attempted to re-establish the institutions of Lycurgus and reform property abuses; put to death through organized wealth, ii, 80.
- Agrarian Laws, a menace to the stability of the government, ii, 78-83.